Thoughtful investment selections that meet your goals and risk profile keep individual stock and bond risks at an acceptable level.
However, other risks are inherent to investing you have no control over. Most of these risks affect the market or the economy and require investors to adjust portfolios or ride out the storm.
Here are four major types of risks that investors face and some strategies, where appropriate for dealing with the problems caused by these market and economic shifts.
Economic RisksOne of the most obvious risks of investing is that the economy can go bad. Following the market bust in 2000 and the terrorists attacks in 2001, the economy settled into a sour spell.
A combination of factors saw the market indexes lose significant percentages. It took years to return to levels close to pre-9/11 marks, only to have the bottom fall out again in 2008-09.
For young investors, the best strategy is often to just hunker down and ride out these downturns. If you can increase your position in good solid companies, these troughs are often good times to do so.
Foreign stocks can be a bright spot when the domestic market is in the dumps if you do your homework. Thanks to globalization, some U.S. companies earn a majority of their profits overseas.
However, in collapses like the 2008-09 disaster, there may be no truly safe places to turn.
Older investors are in a tighter bind. If you are in or near retirement, a major downturn in stocks can be devastating if you havent shifted significant assets to bonds or fixed income securities.
InflationInflation is the tax on everyone. It destroys value and creates recessions.
Although we believe inflation is under our control, the cure of higher interest rates may at some point be as bad as the problem. With the massive government borrowing to fund the stimulus packages, it is only a matter of time before inflation returns.
Investors historically have retreated to hard assets such as real estate and precious metals, especially gold, in times of inflation.
Inflation hurts investors on fixed incomes the most, since it erodes the value of their income stream. Stocks are the best protection against inflation since companies have the ability to adjust prices to the rate of inflation.
A global recession may mean stocks will struggle for a protracted amount of time before the economy is strong enough to bear higher prices.
It is not a perfect solution, but that is why even retired investors should maintain some of their assets in stocks.
Market Value RiskMarket value risk refers to what happens when the market turns against or ignores your investment.
This happens when the market goes off chasing the next hot thing and leaves many good, but unexciting companies behind.
It also happens when the market collapses - good stocks as well as bad stocks suffer as investors stampede out of the market.
Some investors find this a good thing and view it as an opportunity to load up on great stocks at a time when the market isnt bidding down the price.
On the other hand, it doesnt advance your cause to watch your investment flat-line month after month while other parts of the market are going up.
The lesson is dont get caught with all you investments in one sector of the economy. By spreading your investments across several sectors, you have a better chance of participating in growth of some of your stocks at any one time.
Too ConservativeThere is nothing wrong with being a conservative or careful investor. However, if you never take any risk it may be difficult to reach your financial goals.
You may have to finance 15 to 20 years of retirement with your nest egg. Keeping it all in savings instruments may not get the job done.